Development is a broad term that encompasses change in people, societies, and countries. It is not just economic but also social, cultural, and ecological. It is about a better quality of life. It includes such concepts as equity and justice, sustainability and poverty reduction. It is a global issue that affects all countries.
Development involves a range of professions: architects, landscape architects and civil engineers to address design issues; market consultants and economists to determine demand and a project’s economics; soils and environmental engineers to analyze the site’s physical limitations and impacts; attorneys to handle agreements and government approvals; surveyors to provide legal descriptions of a property; and contractors to put architectural plans into action. It also involves the skills of human resources professionals to discuss development goals, such as education and training.
Developed countries have a diverse economy that relies on many different types of people performing specialized tasks. This enables them to produce a wide variety of goods and services. Developed countries also tend to export raw materials, such as oil and corn, to developing countries for sale or use.
Development theories make various assumptions about the causes of development. Some assume that traits and characteristics are mainly determined by genetics, while others believe that environment and learning play more important roles. Other assumptions include whether the process of development is continuous or discontinuous, and whether it is gradual or rapid. Some theorists, such as Piaget and Erickson, see people going through a series of discrete qualitatively different stages like caterpillar to butterfly, while other theorists, such as behaviorists, view development as more of an ongoing process.